Track Categories

The track category is the heading under which your abstract will be reviewed and later published in the conference printed matters if accepted. During the submission process, you will be asked to select one track category for your abstract.

Clinical nephrology  is a specialty of medicine that concerns itself with the study of normal kidney function, kidney problems, the treatment of kidney problems and renal replacement therapy including dialysis and kidney transplantation. Clinical nephrology is a branch of therapeutics and paediatrics that concerns about the investigation of the kidney function,  Nephrology maladies, the treatment of the Nephrology ailments and renal transplantation treatment(dialysis and kidney transplantation). Kidneys play a vital role for life with their complex network of blood vessels and intricate network of tubes and tubules that filter blood of its waste products and excess water. Kidneys maintain liquids, electrolytes, and corrosive base direction that are modified by kidney malady conditions and in addition drugs and toxins. Nephrology diseases manage investigation of the typical working of the kidneys and its sicknesses. Kidney contaminations, Cancers of the kidneys, bladder, and urethra, Effects of maladies like diabetes and hypertension on kidneys, Acid base irregular characteristics, Nephritic disorder and nephritis, Ill impacts of medications and poisons on the kidneys, Dialysis and its long term complications - dialysis incorporates  haemodialysis and also peritoneal dialysis, Autoimmune diseases including immune system vasculitis, lupus, and so forth. Polycystic kidneys infections where huge growths or liquid filled sacs are shaped inside the kidney impairing its functions-this is congenital and inherited or hereditary condition.

  • Track 1-1Critical care Nephrology
  • Track 1-2Stem Cell and Regenerative Nephrology
  • Track 1-3Oncologic Nephrology
  • Track 1-4Obstructive Nephropathy
  • Track 1-5Nephron Clinical practise

Urology also referred to as genitourinary surgical procedure is branch of medicine which deals with the surgical and medical illness present in the urinary tract and infection in any part of the urinary tract is known as urinary tract infection. Depends on the place of Infection it  is named differently. When the infection is on the upper urinary tract then is referred to as pyelonephritis. An organ which comes under urology is kidneys, adrenal glands, urethra, uterus and male reproductive organ. Common illness consists of UTI, Urinary incontinence, benign prostatic hyperplasia. The most common cause of infection is Escherichia coil other than bacteria fungi can also cause the infection. Diagnosis to these infections encompasses few tests like urinalysis, urine microscopy. Analysis  procedure differs to the aged people and it also difficult. Although urinary system has natural defence to this infection sometimes it fails to encounter. Remedy to this infection is antibiotics. Phenazopyridine  is  prescribed and which helps in decreasing burning sensation and urgency often felt during bladder infection. About 150 million people develop urinary tract infection each year. Women are more infected than male. They more often develop bacterial infection and they occur in the age of 16 to 35.

  • Track 2-1Blood bone infection
  • Track 2-2Pediatric Urology
  • Track 2-3Bladder Cancer
  • Track 2-4Pathogenesis
  • Track 2-5Vesicoureteral Reflux
  • Track 2-6Asymptomatic bacteriuria
  • Track 2-7Laparoscopy
  • Track 2-8Andrology
  • Track 2-9Health and fitness

Renal pathology is a subspecialty of anatomic pathology that deals with the diagnosis and characterization of medical diseases (non-tumor) of the kidney . The kidneys are regularly focused by pathogenic insusceptible reactions against renal auto antigens or by nearby appearances of fundamental autoimmunity. For the finding renal pathologists utilize unique tests and electron magnifying instruments to identify the cells associated with ailments influencing the kidneys. Kidney biopsies allow us to dissect renal clutters; survey expectations; help in the determination of an exact  remedial approach; and screen affliction development in both nearby and allograft transplant kidneys. To maximally mishandle renal biopsy illustrations, a mix of light, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy is utilized. Every microscopy requires unmistakable methodologies for obsession and getting ready, so each renal biopsy focuses are regularly isolated into three segments renal biopsy.

  • Track 3-1Urethritis
  • Track 3-2Pyelonephritis
  • Track 3-3Kidney donor
  • Track 3-4Renal placement Therapy
  • Track 3-5Prostate cancer
  • Track 3-6Kidney Biopsy

Clinical urine test , blood test , biopsy , ultrasonography , creatinine test , blood urea nitrogen, potassium , renal biopsy,  renal ultrasonography,  pathology , vitamin D, erythropoietin, phosphorus angiography, serum protein electrophoresis , serum total protein , intravenous pyelogram , voiding cystourethrography , haemoglobin A1C , Urine specific gravity.

  • Track 4-1Diabetes
  • Track 4-2High blood pressure
  • Track 4-3Urine test
  • Track 4-4Heart diseases
  • Track 4-5A Family history of Kidney failure

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC)is a kidney cancer that originates in the lining of the proximal convoluted tubule, a part of the very small tubes in the kidney that transport primary urine. RCC is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults, responsible for approximately 90-95% of cases. Initial treatment is most commonly either partial or complete removal of the affected kidney. Where the cancer has not metastasised (spread to other organs) or burrowed deeper into the tissues of the kidney, the five –year’s survival rate is 65-90%, but this is lowered considerably when the cancer has spread. The body is remarkably good at hiding the symptoms and as a result people with RCC often have advanced disease by the time it is discovered. The initial symptoms of RCC often include blood in the urine (occurring in 40% of affected persons at the time they first seek medical attention), flank pain (40%), a mass in the abdomen or flank (25%), weight loss (33%), fever (20%), high blood pressure (20%), night sweats and generally feeling unwell. When RCC metastasises, it most commonly spreads to RCC is also associated with a number of Paraneoplastic Syndromes (PNS) which are conditions caused by either the hormones produced by the tumour or by the body’s attack on the tumour and are present in about 20% of those with RCC.

  • Track 5-1Nephrectomy
  • Track 5-2Papillary RCC
  • Track 5-3Transitional cell cancer of the kidney
  • Track 5-4Lymphoma
  • Track 5-5Sarcoma
  • Track 5-6Renal neoplasm
  • Track 5-7Proliferative Endocapillary Glomerulonephritis
  • Track 5-8Urothelial papilloma
  • Track 5-9Metanephric tumours

Polycystic Kidney Diseases is a genetic disorder that causes many fluid filled cysts to grow in your kidneys. Unlike the usually harmless simple kidney cysts that can form in the kidneys later in life, PKD also can cause other complications or problems, such as high blood pressure, cysts in the liver, and problems with blood vessels in your brain and heart. It is a form of chronic kidney disease (CKD) that reduces kidney function and may lead to kidney failure. Frequent complications of polycystic kidney disease include dangerously high blood pressure (Hypertension), pain in the back or sides, blood in the urine (Hematuria), recurrent urinary tract infections, kidney stones, and heart valve abnormalities. Additionally, people with polycystic kidney disease have an increased risk of an abnormal bulging (an aneurysm)in a large blood vessel called the aorta or in blood vessels at the base of the brain. Aneurysms can be life-threating if they tear or rupture. The two major forms of polycystic kidney disease are distinguished by the usual age of onset and the pattern in which it is passed through families. The autosomal dominant form (sometimes called ADPKD) has signs and symptoms that typically begin in adulthood, although cysts in the kidney are often present from birth or childhood. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease can be further divided into type 1 and type 2, depending on the genetic cause. The autosomal recessive form of polycystic kidney disease (sometimes called ARPKD) is much rarer and is often lethal early in life. The signs and symptoms of this condition are usually apparent at birth or in early infancy.


  • Track 6-1Genetic testing information
  • Track 6-2Research studies from Clinical trail

The diabetic kidney disease sometimes also called as diabetic nephropathy is a renal related complication usually occurs in some people with diabetes mellitus. In diabetic nephropathy filters of the kidneys and glomeruli become damaged. In this condition the kidneys leak abnormal quantity of protein from blood into the urine.If anyone has diabetes, the blood glucose, or blood sugar levels are very high. For prolonged period, this can damage the kidneys. The role of kidney is to clean your blood. In case they are damaged, waste and fluids accumulate in your blood with out of leaving from your body. If the kidney damage by diabetes is called diabetic nephropathy. Usually it starts long before you have notice symptoms. The beginning sign of it is small quantity of protein in urine. By urine test we can detect diabetic nephropathy or blood test can also determine the functioning of kidney. If the damage continues for prolonged period the kidneys may fail. Actually, diabetes is the most common cause of renal failure in the U S. People with kidney failure should go for dialysis or kidney transplantation. The Diabetic kidney disease sometimes also called as Diabetic nephropathy is a renal related complication usually occurs in some people with diabetes mellitus.


  • Track 7-1Diabetics Nephropathy
  • Track 7-2Diabetes Mellitus (clinical)
  • Track 7-3Diabetic Nephropathy
  • Track 7-4Genetics of kidney disease-Diabetic kidney disease
  • Track 7-5Genetics of kidney disease-Diabetic kidney disease
  • Track 7-6Genetics of kidney disease
  • Track 7-7Renal hemodynamic and Vascular Physiology

It is the narrowing of one of the renal arteries most often caused by atherosclerosis or fibromuscular dysplasia. This narrowing of the renal artery can impede blood flow to the target kidney, resulting in Reno vascular hypertension – a secondary type of high blood pressure. Possible complications of renal artery stenosis are chronic kidney disease and coronary artery disease. The pathophysiology of renal artery stenosis leads to changes in the structure of the kidney that are most noticeable in the tubular tissue. If the stenosis is longstanding and severe, the glomerular, filtration rate in the affected kidneys never recovers and (prerenal) kidney failure is the result.



  • Track 8-1Duplex ultrasound
  • Track 8-2Computed tomographic angiography (CTA)
  • Track 8-3Angiogram
  • Track 8-4Angioplasty and Stenting
  • Track 8-5Renal bypass surgery
  • Track 8-6Atherosclerosis
  • Track 8-7Surgical bypass

Alport syndrome is a genetic condition characterized by kidney disease, hearing loss, and eye abnormalities. People with Alport syndrome experience progressive loss of kidney function. Almost all affected individuals have blood in their urine (haematuria), which indicates abnormal functioning of the kidneys.

Alport syndrome is a genetic condition characterized by kidney disease, hearing loss, and eye abnormalities.

People with Alport syndrome experience progressive loss of kidney function. Almost all affected individuals have blood in their urine (haematuria), which indicates abnormal functioning of the kidneys. Many people with Al port syndrome also develop high levels of protein in their urine (proteinuria). The kidneys become less able to function as this condition progresses, resulting in end-stage renal disease (ESRD).

People with Alport syndrome frequently develop sensorineural hearing loss, which is caused by abnormalities of the inner ear, during late childhood or early adolescence. Affected individuals may also have misshapen lenses in the eyes (anterior lenticonus) and abnormal coloration of the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (retina). These eye abnormalities seldom lead to vision loss.


  • Track 9-1Frequenycauses, inheritance pattern, Diagnosis &Management Links
  • Track 9-2Frequenycauses
  • Track 9-3Acidosis

It is a kidney disorder that causes your body to excrete too much protein in your urine. Nephrotic syndrome is usually caused by damage to the clusters of small blood vessels in your kidneys that filter waste and excess water from your blood. Nephrotic syndrome causes swelling (edema), particularly in your feet and ankles, and increases the risk of other health problems.Treatment for nephrotic syndrome includes treating the underlying condition that's causing it and taking medications. Nephrotic syndrome can increase your risk of infections and blood clots. Your doctor may recommend medications and dietary changes to prevent these and other complications of nephrotic syndrome.

  • Track 10-1Congenital nephrotic syndrome
  • Track 10-2Membranous Nephropathy
  • Track 10-3 Membranoproliferative glomerular nephritis
  • Track 10-4Diabetes and Kidney Disease
  • Track 10-5Diabetes & Metabolism
  • Track 10-6Kidney Biopsy

Analgesic nephropathy is a part of the wider clinical ‘analgesic’ syndrome, which includes neuropsychiatric, gastrointestinal, haematological, cardiovascular, and dermatological manifestations in addition to the increased risk of developing Urothelial tumours. Although the major malignancy that has been observed in association with Analgesic Nephropathy is transitional cell carcinoma, other cancers such as renal cell carcinoma and sarcoma has also been reported in the literature. Analgesic-associated tumours are more likely to be multifocal and more malignant than those unrelated to analgesics. These tumours are more likely of renal pelvic origin with frequent accompaniment of renal papillary necrosis  and kidney dysfunction. A mean phenacetin consumption of 9.1 kg, a mean exposure time of 17 years, a mean induction time of 22 years, and female sex have been reported as risk factors for these tumours.


  • Track 11-1Pathological abnormalities in kidney
  • Track 11-2Impairment of moderate renal

A kidney biopsy involves taking one or more tiny pieces (samples) of your kidney to look at with special microscopes. The microscopes make it possible to see the samples in greater detail.

The biopsy sample may be taken in one of two ways:

1.Percutaneous (through the skin) biopsy: a needle placed through the skin that lies over the kidney and guided to the right place in the kidney, usually with the help of ultrasound.

2.Open biopsy: the kidney sample is taken directly from the kidney during surgery.
The kidney sample is then sent to a doctor (pathologist) who looks at it with microscopes. He or she will check for any signs of disease.


  • Track 12-1Azotemia or Uraemia
  • Track 12-2Urinary tract infection
  • Track 12-3Obesity
  • Track 12-4Warfarin or Heparin
  • Track 12-5Pregnancy

Congenital nephrotic syndrome is defined by the presence of nephrotic range proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia and edema, with onset in the first 3 months of life. It is usually secondary to genetic mutations of the components of the glomerular filtration barrier, although infective causes must be ruled out. Congenital heart disease is extremely rare in congenital nephrotic syndrome, accounting for less than 20% of cases and is mostly associated with podocin mutation. We report a 2 month girl, presenting with anasarca in the first 2 months of life and was diagnosed to have congenital nephrotic syndrome. Infectious causes including malaria, cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis, syphilis, human immunodeficiency virus and rubella were ruled out. In view of a systolic murmur, echocardiography was done which revealed ostium secundum atrial septal defect and branch pulmonary artery stenosis. Genetic analysis showed homozygous single base pair duplication in exon 20 of the NPHS1 gene (chr19:36332624dupG; Depth: 216x) resulting in a frameshift and premature truncation of the protein 6 amino acids downstream to codon 937 (p.Ser937GlnfsTer6; ENST00000378910.5). This is the first case of NPHS1 (nephrin) mutation associated with congenital cardiac disease along with congenital nephrotic syndrome.


  • Track 13-1Genetic analysis
  • Track 13-2Patient management
  • Track 13-3Collection of clinical data
  • Track 13-4Light and electron Microscopy of Kidney samples

Kidney transplantation or renal transplantation is the organ transplant of a kidney into a patient with end-stage renal disease. Kidney transplantation is typically classified as deceased-donor (formerly known as cadaveric) or living-donor transplantation depending on the source of the donor organ. Living-donor renal transplants are further characterized as genetically related (living-related) or non-related (living-unrelated) transplants, depending on whether a biological relationship exists between the donor and recipient. Exchanges and chains are a novel approach to expand the living donor pool. In February 2012, this novel approach to expand the living donor pool resulted in the largest chain in the world, involving 60 participants organized by the national kidney registry. In 2014 the record for the largest chain was broken again by a swap involving 70 participants.



  • Track 14-1Transplanted Kidney
  • Track 14-2Transplanted ureter
  • Track 14-3End stage kidney disease
  • Track 14-4Prognosis

Nephrocalcinosis  is a condition in which calcium levels in the kidneys are increased. Most often, the increase in renal calcium is generalized, as opposed to the localized increase observed in calcified renal infarct and caveating granulomas of renal tuberculosis.  Determined by the underlying aetiology, though in many cases, the condition remains asymptomatic and is identified only as a radiologic abnormality.

Clinical features of  hypercalcaemic nephropathy: Relative vasopressin resistance with decreased renal concentrating ability and increased free water diuresis, manifesting as polyuria and polydipsia, Renal glycosuria, reduced glucose tubular maximum, aminoaciduria, and no glomerular proteinuria, Reversible hypertension, Renal failure. Clinical features of microscopic nephrocalcinosis include reduced concentration capacity,  Increased blood urea nitrogen (BUN), Prolongation of nephron transit time in the distal tubule, Acute pyelonephritis or calculous ureteral obstruction with renal failure.


  • Track 15-1Kidney and blood pressure research
  • Track 15-2Medullary Nephrocalcinosis
  • Track 15-3 Hypercalciuria without Hypercalcemia
  • Track 15-4Stages of Nephrocalcinosis
  • Track 15-5Medullary sponge kidney

Renal cell carcinoma, also called kidney cancer, occurs when cancer cells form in the tubules of the kidney. Renal cell carcinoma becomes metastatic renal cell carcinoma when it spreads beyond your kidney to your lymph system, bones, or other organs. Tubules are tiny tubes in your kidney that help filter waste products from your blood in order to make urine. Smoking, hypertension, obesity, and hepatitis C all increase the risk of renal cell carcinoma. Renal cell carcinoma becomes metastatic renal cell carcinoma when it spreads beyond your kidney to your lymph system, bones, or other organs.



  • Track 16-1Tumor heterogeneity
  • Track 16-2Localized disease
  • Track 16-3Patterns of metastases RCC
  • Track 16-4Brain metastases
  • Track 16-5Vascular endothelial growth factor
  • Track 16-6Hypoxia inducible factor
  • Track 16-7 Mammalian target of rapamycin

Renal papillary necrosis is a disorder of the kidneys in which all or part of the renal papillae die. The renal papillae are the areas where the openings of the collecting ducts enter the kidney and where urine flows into the ureters.

\Renal papillary necrosis is a disorder of the kidneys in which all or part of the renal papillae die. The renal papillae are the areas where the openings of the collecting ducts enter the kidney and where urine flows into the ureters. Renal papillary necrosis often occurs with analgesic nephropathy. This is damage to one or both kidneys caused by over exposure to pain medicines.


  • Track 17-1Diabetic nephropathy
  • Track 17-2 Kidney infection(pyelonephritis)
  • Track 17-3kidney transplant rejection
  • Track 17-4Sickle cell anemia
  • Track 17-5Urinary tract blockage
  • Track 17-6Urinary tract blockage

Nephroblastoma (or) Wilms tumor is a rare kidney cancer that is highly treatable. Most kids with Wilms tumour survive and go on to live normal, healthy lives. Also known as nephroblastoma, Wilms tumour can affect both kidneys, but usually develops in just one. Before being diagnosed with Wilms tumour, most children do not show any signs of having cancer, and usually act and play normally. Often, a parent discovers a firm, smooth lump in the child's abdomen (belly). It is not uncommon for the mass to grow quite large before it is discovered. In fact, the average Wilms tumour is 1 pound at diagnosis.


  • Track 18-1Aniridia
  • Track 18-2 Hemihypertrophy
  • Track 18-3WAGR syndrome
  • Track 18-4WAGR syndrome
  • Track 18-5Denys-Drash syndrome
  • Track 18-6Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome

Fanconi syndrome is a rare disorder of kidney tubule function that results in excess amounts of glucose, bicarbonate, phosphates (phosphorus salts), uric acid, potassium and certain amino acids being excreted in the urine. 


  • Track 19-1Vitamin D deficiency
  • Track 19-2Kidney transplantation
  • Track 19-3Multiple myeloma
  • Track 19-4Amyloidosis

Glomerulonephritis (gloe-mer-u-low-nuh-FRY-tis) is inflammation of the tiny filters in your kidneys (glomeruli). Glomeruli remove excess fluid, electrolytes and waste from your bloodstream and pass them into your urine. Glomerulonephritis can come on suddenly (acute) or gradually (chronic).Glomerulonephritis occurs on its own or as part of another disease, such as lupus or diabetes. Severe or prolonged inflammation associated with glomerulonephritis can damage your kidneys.


  • Track 20-1Post-Streptococcal glomerulonephritis
  • Track 20-2Bacterial endocarditis
  • Track 20-3Granulomatosis with polyangitis

 Paediatric nephrologists diagnose, treat, and manage many disorders affecting the kidney and urinary tract, including kidney failure, high blood pressure, inherited kidney diseases, kidney stones, urinary tract infections, and abnormalities in the urine such as blood and protein. If your child has kidney or urinary tract disease, bladder problems, kidney stones, or high blood pressure, a paediatric nephrologist has the special skills and experience to treat your child. Paediatric nephrologists treat children from infancy through late adolescence and in some centres up to young adulthood.


  • Track 21-1Hemodynamics
  • Track 21-2Polycystic
  • Track 21-3Primary Hyperoxaluria
  • Track 21-4Acute kidney failure
  • Track 21-5Herediatary Kidney disorder

The Renal Therapeutics is an introduction to all aspects of drug use in renal failure. Covering various diseases affecting the kidneys, each chapter discusses the disease process and treatment. It also addresses the role of the pharmacist in patient care, and the advanced renal therapeutics is the next generation of therapeutics for chronic kidney disease.

  • Track 22-1Endothrelial glycocalyx
  • Track 22-2Anti inflammatory therapy
  • Track 22-3Tumor Necrosis
  • Track 22-4Targeting fibrosis

While healthy kidney have several functions in the body, the most well-known job is to produce urine. When kidney function goes below 10% to 15% kidneys are no longer able to filter the blood and make urine. This causes toxins to build up in the body along with excess fluid. Fortunately, we live in a time when there are treatments and medicines that can replace the functions of the kidneys and keep the body alive. One type of renal replacement therapy is a treatment that replaces kidney function is known as haemodialysis. Haemodialysis is a therapy that filters waste, removes extra fluid and balances electrolytes (sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, chloride, calcium, magnesium and phosphate).


  • Track 23-1Conventional hemodialysis
  • Track 23-2Nocturnal hemodialysis
  • Track 23-3Epidemiology

Peritoneal dialysis is a type of dialysis which uses the peritoneum in a person's abdomen as the membrane through which fluid and dissolved substances are exchanged with the blood. It is used to remove excess fluid, correct electrolyte problems, and remove toxins in those with kidney failure. Peritoneal dialysis has better outcomes than haemodialysis  during the first couple of years. Other benefits include greater flexibility and better tolerability in those with significant heart disease.

Complications may include infections with the abdomen, hernias, high blood sugar, bleeding in the abdomen, and blockage of the catheter. Use is not possible in those with significant prior abdominal surgery or inflammatory bowel disease. It requires some degree of technical skill to be done properly. In peritoneal dialysis, a specific solution is introduced through a permanent tube in the lower abdomen and then removed. This may either occur at regular intervals throughout the day, known as continuous ambulatory dialysis, or at night with the assistance of a machine, known as automated peritoneal dialysis. The solution is typically made of sodium chloride, hydrogen carbonate, and an osmotic agent such as glucose.


  • Track 24-1Hemodialysis
  • Track 24-2Continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD)
  • Track 24-3Peritoneal equilibration test
  • Track 24-4Clerance test

Hydro nephrosis is a structural situation that commonly takes place while the kidney swells because of the failure of regular drainage of urine from the kidney to the bladder resulting in the distension and dilation of the renal pelvis and calyces. It can have an effect on human beings of any age and is once in a while spotted in unborn toddlers at some stage in ordinary pregnancy ultrasound scans.Whilst no motive may be detectable it's miles called as Idiopathic hydro nephrosis and while there is a definable reason it's miles Secondary hydro nephrosis. Unilateral maybe extramural, intramural or intraluminal and it is normally visible in youngsters. Hydro nephrosis may additionally or won't cause signs. The most important symptom is ache, either in the side and returned, stomach or groin. Symptoms depend on the motive and severity of urinary blockage hazard elements like kidney stones, urinary tract infections might also lead to hydro nephrosis. An ultrasound can be used to commonly diagnose the disease. Treatment for hydro nephrosis ordinarily makes a speciality of getting rid of whatever is blockading the glide of urine and the treatment choice depends on the underlying purpose of the disorder.


  • Track 25-1Hyponatremia
  • Track 25-2Urethral meatus
  • Track 25-3Retroperitoneal fibrosis
  • Track 25-4Prognosis

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means your kidneys are damaged and can't filter blood the way they should. The disease is called “chronic” because the damage to your kidneys happens slowly over a long period of time. This damage can cause wastes to build up in your body. CKD can also cause other health problems. The kidneys’ main job is to filter extra water and wastes out of your blood to make urine. To keep your body working properly, the kidneys balance the salts and minerals—such as calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and potassium—that circulate in the blood. Your kidneys also make hormones that help control blood pressure, make red blood cells, and keep your bones strong. Kidney disease often can get worse over time and may lead to kidney failure. If your kidneys fail, you will need dialysis or a kidney transplant to maintain your health. The sooner you know you have kidney disease, the sooner you can make changes to protect your kidneys.

  • Track 26-1Suprapubic catheter
  • Track 26-2Pyonephrosis
  • Track 26-3Stone causing hydronephrosis

IgA nephropathy (nuh-FROP-uh-thee), also known as Berger's disease, is a kidney disease that occurs when an antibody called immunoglobulin A (IgA) builds up in your kidneys. This results in local inflammation that, over time, can hamper your kidneys' ability to filter waste from your blood. Our kidneys are two bean-shaped, fist-sized organs situated at the small of your back, one on each side of your spine. Each kidney contains tiny blood vessels that filter waste, excess water and other substances from your blood as they pass through your kidneys. The filtered blood renters your bloodstream, while the waste material passes into your bladder and out of your body when you urinate. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is an antibody that plays a key role in your immune system by attacking invading pathogens and fighting infections. But in IgA nephropathy, this antibody collects in the glomeruli, causing inflammation (glomerulonephritis) and gradually affecting their filtering ability.


  • Track 27-1Liver diseases
  • Track 27-2Genes
  • Track 27-3Chronic kidney disease

Lupus nephritis is the disease of the kidneys due to lupus. About 30% of lupus patients will develop kidney disease within the first six months to three years of their diagnosis with SLE. In patients with lupus nephritis, an excessively active immune system attacks the patient’s organs and tissues and causes inflammation and damage. Inflammation of the kidney prevents it from functioning normally and can result in the spill of protein and blood in the patient’s urine. As a result, the urine may appear bloody, frothy, or foamy. Other early signs of lupus nephritis may include an increase in blood pressure and swelling of the feet, ankles, and the face, specifically around the eyes.

Prompt diagnosis of lupus nephritis and proper classification of the disease allows for selection of the best therapeutic options for each case. A kidney biopsy is often needed to help with such assessment. The final decision as to which therapeutic option is the best for each patient is made by the patient and the patient’s treating rheumatologist and nephrologist after careful discussion of available options.

The goal of the therapy is to fully control inflammation (Induction Therapy) or to achieve at least major improvement in parameters of kidney function (e.g., reduce the amounts of protein lost in the urine, promote improvement in blood level of creatinine) with minimization of symptoms. This is required to prevent further kidney damage and kidney failure. Once good control of the disease is achieved, Maintenance Therapy is used to prevent further flares.


It is a medical condition that involves an accumulation of acid in the body due to a failure of the kidneys to appropriately acidify the urine. In renal physiology, when blood is filtered by the kidney, the filtrate passes through the tubules of the nephron, allowing for exchange of salts, acid equivalents, and other solutes before it drains in to the bladder as urine. The metabolic acidosis that results from RTA may be caused either by failure to reabsorb sufficient bicarbonate ions from the filtrate in the early portion of the nephron or by insufficient secretion of hydrogen ions in to the latter portion of the nephron. Although a metabolic acidosis is also occurs in those with chronic kidney disease.


  • Track 29-1 Absolute hypoaldosteronism
  • Track 29-2 Absolute hypoaldosteronism
  • Track 29-3Aldosterone insensitivity
  • Track 29-4Acidemia

Surgery to remove a kidney or part of a kidney. In a partial nephrectomy, part of one kidney or a tumour is removed, but not an entire kidney. In a simple nephrectomy, one kidney is removed. In a radical nephrectomy, an entire kidney, nearby adrenal gland and lymph nodes, and other surrounding tissue are removed. In a bilateral nephrectomy, both kidneys are removed.

  • Track 30-1Radial Nephrectomy
  • Track 30-2Parital Nephrectomy
  • Track 30-3Robotic Nephrectomy
  • Track 30-4Delayed nephrectomy

It is a kidney located below, above, or on the opposite side of the kidney’s normal position in the urinary tract. The two kidneys are usually located near the middle of your back, just below your rib cage, on either side of your spine. An ectopic kidney usually doesn’t cause any symptoms or health problems, and many people never find out that they have the condition.. If an ectopic kidney is discovered, it is usually found during a foetal ultrasound—an imaging test that uses sound waves to create a picture of  how a baby is developing in the womb—or during medical tests done to check for a urinary tract infection or to find the cause of abdominal pain. Rarely does a person have two ectopic kidneys.

In the womb, foetus kidneys first develop as small buds in the lower abdomen inside the pelvis. During the first 8 weeks of growth, the foetus’s  kidneys slowly move from the pelvis to their normal position in the back near the rib cage. When an ectopic kidney occurs during growth, the kidney

  • stays in the pelvis near the bladder
  • stops moving up too early and stays in the lower abdomen
  • moves too high up in the abdomen
  • crosses over the centre of the body and often grows into, or joins, the other kidney, with both kidneys on the same side of the body


 It is a group of blood disorders characterized by low red blood cells, acute kidney failure, and low platelets. Initial symptoms typically include bloody diarrhoea, fever, vomiting, and weakness. Kidney problems and low platelets then occur as the diarrhoea is improving. While children are more commonly affected, adults may have worse outcomes. Complications may include neurological problems and heart failure.


  • Track 32-1Thrombocytopenia
  • Track 32-2Microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia

Interstitial nephritis is a kidney condition characterized by swelling in between the kidney tubules.The main functions of your kidneys are to filter your blood and to get rid of waste from your body. The kidney tubules reabsorb water and important organic substances from the filtered blood and secrete substances you don’t need into your urine for removal from your body. Swelling of these tubules can cause a number of kidney symptoms that range from mild to severe.


  • Track 33-1Analgesic nephropathy
  • Track 33-2Chronic
  • Track 33-3Tubulointerstital nephritis
  • Track 33-4Acute tubulointerstital nephritis
  • Track 33-5Kidney Biopsy

 Atheroembolic renal disease is caused by occlusion of small arteries in the kidneys by cholesterol crystal emboli from ulcerated atherosclerotic plaques and is a part of systemic atheroembolism disease. Atheroembolic renal disease (AERD), also called atheroembolism , cholesterol embolism , cholesterol atheroembolic renal disease , or cholesterol crystal embolization , often is an underdiagnosed clinical illness. The kidney is usually involved because of proximity of the renal arteries to abdominal aorta, wherein the erosion of atheromatous plaque is most likely to occur. Cholesterol embolism also can occur in other visceral organs, as well as in the upper and lower extremities. Because the renal arteries have their origin from abdominal aorta and an enormous amount of blood flows through the kidney, it becomes a prime target in cholesterol crystal embolization.

AERD can be defined as renal failure secondary to the occlusion of renal arteries, arterioles, and glomerular capillaries with atheromatous plaques that are dislodged from the aorta and other major arteries. The release of cholesterol plaques into the circulation can occur spontaneously or after intravascular trauma with angiographic catheters or after the use of anticoagulants and thrombolytic agents. Like the native kidneys, a transplanted kidney also can be affected with cholesterol embolism and it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of worsening renal allograft function. Furthermore, AERD should be distinguished from other embolic disorders, such as atrial fibrillation, left atrial myxoma, and bacterial endocarditis.


  • Track 34-1Arterial occlusion of renal artery
  • Track 34-2Arterial occlusion of renal artery

End-stage renal disease also termed as Chronic kidney diseases (CKD) comprise condition that damage kidneys and impair their ability to keep you hygienic by abnormal function. On condition kidney disease gets worse; waste can accumulate to high levels in your blood make you feel ill. You may develop issues like anaemia, high blood pressure, weak bones, nerve damage and poor nutritional health. Also, kidney disease elevates your risk of having coronary disease and heart problems. These problems may occur slowly for a long period time. Diabetes and high blood pressure are the two main causes of chronic kidney disease.


  • Track 35-1Acute kidney failure
  • Track 35-2Kidney transplantation
  • Track 35-3Peritonal dialysis