Track Categories

The track category is the heading under which your abstract will be reviewed and later published in the conference printed matters if accepted. During the submission process, you will be asked to select one track category for your abstract.

Nephrology is a class of medicine that deals with the infections of the kidneys and bladders and it concentrate on the diagnosis and treatment of Nephrology maladies. The kidneys are matched retroperitoneal organs that lie at the level of the T12 to L3 vertebral bodies. The kidney has a fibrous capsule, which is encompassed by Para renal fat. The kidney itself can be separated into renal parenchyma, comprising of renal cortex and medulla, and the renal sinus containing renal pelvis, calyces, renal vessels and nerves, lymphatic and per renal fat. This renal parenchyma has two layers: cortex and medulla. The renal cortex lies incidentally under the case while the renal medulla comprises of 10-14 renal pyramids, which are isolated from each other by an augmentation of renal cortex called renal segments. The kidneys serve vital capacities, including filtration and discharge of metabolic waste items (urea and ammonium); control of essential electrolytes, liquid, and corrosive base adjust; and incitement of red platelet generation. They likewise serve to direct pulse by means of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone framework, controlling reabsorption of water and keeping up intravascular volume. The kidneys additionally reabsorb glucose and amino acids and have hormonal capacities through erythropoietin, calcitriol, and vitamin D activation.

  • Track 1-1Pediatric Nephrology
  • Track 1-2Clinical Nephrology
  • Track 1-3Integrative Nephrology
  • Track 1-4Kidney Transplantation recipients

The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs. Each kidney is about the size of a fist. Your kidneys filter extra water and wastes out of your blood and make urine. If kidneys are damaged and can’t filter blood the way they should.

You are at greater risk for kidney disease if you have diabetes or high blood pressure. If you experience kidney failure, treatments include kidney transplant or dialysis. Other kidney problems include acute kidney injury, kidney cysts, kidney stones, and kidney infections.

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD),  Kidney Failure,Diabetic Kidney Disease, IgA Nephropathy, Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD),Simple Kidney Cysts,Kidney Infection (Pyelonephritis), Kidney Stones

  • Track 2-1Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Track 2-2IgA Nephropathy
  • Track 2-3Polycystic Kidney Disease
  • Track 2-4Simple Kidney Cysts
  • Track 2-5Kidney Infection (Pyelonephritis)

Renal pathology is a subspecialty of anatomic pathology that deals with the diagnosis and characterization of medical diseases (non-tumor) of the kidney . The kidneys are regularly focused by pathogenic insusceptible reactions against renal auto antigens or by nearby appearances of fundamental autoimmunity. For the finding renal pathologists utilize unique tests and electron magnifying instruments to identify the cells associated with ailments influencing the kidneys. Kidney biopsies allow us to dissect renal clutters; survey expectations; help in the determination of an exact  remedial approach; and screen affliction development in both nearby and allograft transplant kidneys. To maximally mishandle renal biopsy illustrations, a mix of light, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy is utilized. Every microscopy requires unmistakable methodologies for obsession and getting ready, so each renal biopsy focuses are regularly isolated into three segments renal biopsy.

  • Track 3-1Urethritis
  • Track 3-2Pyelonephritis
  • Track 3-3Kidney donor
  • Track 3-4Renal placement Therapy
  • Track 3-5Prostate cancer
  • Track 3-6Kidney Biopsy

The urinary and regenerative tracts are solidly associated, and clutters of one oftentimes impact the other. Along these lines, a range scope of the conditions regulated in urology exists under the region of genitourinary issue. Urology combines the organization of remedial and it is nonsurgical conditions, for example, urinary tract pollutions and altruistic prostatic hyperplasia, with the association of careful conditions. Models: Bladder or prostate tumour, kidney stones, hereditary changes, kidney harm, and stress incontinence

  • Track 4-1Vesicoureteral Reflux
  • Track 4-2Urethral cancer
  • Track 4-3Urinary incontinence
  • Track 4-4Urinary incontinence
  • Track 4-5Urinary tract Obstruction and Urinary tract infection
  • Track 4-6Urogenital Fistula
  • Track 4-7Urogenital Neoplasm
  • Track 4-8Urothelial Cell Carcinom
  • Track 4-9Urothelial Tumors
  • Track 4-10Clinical Urology
  • Track 4-11Bladder Cancer

Clinical urine test , blood test , biopsy , ultrasonography , creatinine test , blood urea nitrogen, potassium , renal biopsy,  renal ultrasonography,  pathology , vitamin D, erythropoietin, phosphorus angiography, serum protein electrophoresis , serum total protein , intravenous pyelogram , voiding cystourethrography , haemoglobin A1C , Urine specific gravity.

  • Track 5-1Diabetes
  • Track 5-2High blood pressure
  • Track 5-3Urine test
  • Track 5-4Heart diseases
  • Track 5-5A Family history of Kidney failure

Nephrology (from Greek nephros "kidney", combined with the suffix -logy, "the study of") is a specialty of medicine and pediatric medicine that concerns itself with the kidneys,  Clinical nephrology  is a specialty of medicine that concerns itself with the study of normal kidney function, kidney problems, the treatment of kidney problems and renal replacement therapy including dialysis and kidney transplantation. Clinical nephrology is a branch of therapeutics and paediatrics that concerns about the investigation of the kidney function, Nephrology maladies, the treatment of the Nephrology ailments and renal transplantation treatment(dialysis and kidney transplantation). Kidneys play a vital role for life with their complex network of blood vessels and intricate network of tubes and tubules that filter blood of its waste products and excess water. Kidneys maintain liquids, electrolytes, and corrosive base direction that are modified by kidney malady conditions and in addition drugs and toxins. Nephrology diseases manage investigation of the typical working of the kidneys and its sicknesses. Kidney contaminations, Cancers of the kidneys, bladder, and urethra, Effects of maladies like diabetes and hypertension on kidneys, Acid base irregular characteristics, Nephritic disorder and nephritis, Ill impacts of medications and poisons on the kidneys, Dialysis and its long term complications - dialysis incorporates  haemodialysis and also peritoneal dialysis, Autoimmune diseases including immune system vasculitis, lupus, and so forth.


  • Track 6-1Nephrectomy
  • Track 6-2Diabetic Nephropathy

A kidney transplant is a surgical procedure to place a healthy kidney from a living or deceased donor into a person whose kidneys no longer function properly. Patients with end-stage renal failure are candidates for transplantation. A successful transplant frees the patient from dialysis and provides the kidney's other metabolic functions. The survival rate a year after a transplant from a living related donor is over 95%. The survival rate a year after a transplant from a cadaver is about 90%. The principal problems in kidney transplantation involve avoiding rejection of the transplanted kidney by the recipient's immune system.


The diabetic kidney disease sometimes also called as diabetic nephropathy is a renal related complication usually occurs in some people with diabetes mellitus. In diabetic nephropathy filters of the kidneys and glomeruli become damaged. In this condition the kidneys leak abnormal quantity of protein from blood into the urine.If anyone has diabetes, the blood glucose, or blood sugar levels are very high. For prolonged period, this can damage the kidneys. The role of kidney is to clean your blood. In case they are damaged, waste and fluids accumulate in your blood with out of leaving from your body. If the kidney damage by diabetes is called diabetic nephropathy. Usually it starts long before you have notice symptoms. The beginning sign of it is small quantity of protein in urine. By urine test we can detect diabetic nephropathy or blood test can also determine the functioning of kidney. If the damage continues for prolonged period the kidneys may fail. Actually, diabetes is the most common cause of renal failure in the U S. People with kidney failure should go for dialysis or kidney transplantation. The Diabetic kidney disease sometimes also called as Diabetic nephropathy is a renal related complication usually occurs in some people with diabetes mellitus.


  • Track 8-1Diabetics Nephropathy
  • Track 8-2Diabetes Mellitus (clinical)
  • Track 8-3Diabetic Nephropathy
  • Track 8-4Genetics of kidney disease-Diabetic kidney disease
  • Track 8-5Genetics of kidney disease-Diabetic kidney disease
  • Track 8-6Genetics of kidney disease
  • Track 8-7Renal hemodynamic and Vascular Physiology

It is the narrowing of one of the renal arteries most often caused by atherosclerosis or fibromuscular dysplasia. This narrowing of the renal artery can impede blood flow to the target kidney, resulting in Reno vascular hypertension – a secondary type of high blood pressure. Possible complications of renal artery stenosis are chronic kidney disease and coronary artery disease. The pathophysiology of renal artery stenosis leads to changes in the structure of the kidney that are most noticeable in the tubular tissue. If the stenosis is longstanding and severe, the glomerular, filtration rate in the affected kidneys never recovers and (prerenal) kidney failure is the result.



  • Track 9-1Duplex ultrasound
  • Track 9-2Computed tomographic angiography (CTA)
  • Track 9-3Angiogram
  • Track 9-4Angioplasty and Stenting
  • Track 9-5Renal bypass surgery
  • Track 9-6Atherosclerosis
  • Track 9-7Surgical bypass

Alport syndrome is a genetic condition characterized by kidney disease, hearing loss, and eye abnormalities. People with Alport syndrome experience progressive loss of kidney function. Almost all affected individuals have blood in their urine (haematuria), which indicates abnormal functioning of the kidneys.

Alport syndrome is a genetic condition characterized by kidney disease, hearing loss, and eye abnormalities.

People with Alport syndrome experience progressive loss of kidney function. Almost all affected individuals have blood in their urine (haematuria), which indicates abnormal functioning of the kidneys. Many people with Al port syndrome also develop high levels of protein in their urine (proteinuria). The kidneys become less able to function as this condition progresses, resulting in end-stage renal disease (ESRD).

People with Alport syndrome frequently develop sensorineural hearing loss, which is caused by abnormalities of the inner ear, during late childhood or early adolescence. Affected individuals may also have misshapen lenses in the eyes (anterior lenticonus) and abnormal coloration of the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (retina). These eye abnormalities seldom lead to vision loss.


  • Track 10-1Frequenycauses, inheritance pattern, Diagnosis &Management Links
  • Track 10-2Frequenycauses
  • Track 10-3Acidosis

It is a kidney disorder that causes your body to excrete too much protein in your urine. Nephrotic syndrome is usually caused by damage to the clusters of small blood vessels in your kidneys that filter waste and excess water from your blood. Nephrotic syndrome causes swelling (edema), particularly in your feet and ankles, and increases the risk of other health problems.Treatment for nephrotic syndrome includes treating the underlying condition that's causing it and taking medications. Nephrotic syndrome can increase your risk of infections and blood clots. Your doctor may recommend medications and dietary changes to prevent these and other complications of nephrotic syndrome.

  • Track 11-1Congenital nephrotic syndrome
  • Track 11-2Membranous Nephropathy
  • Track 11-3 Membranoproliferative glomerular nephritis
  • Track 11-4Diabetes and Kidney Disease
  • Track 11-5Diabetes & Metabolism
  • Track 11-6Kidney Biopsy

Analgesic nephropathy is a part of the wider clinical ‘analgesic’ syndrome, which includes neuropsychiatric, gastrointestinal, haematological, cardiovascular, and dermatological manifestations in addition to the increased risk of developing Urothelial tumours. Although the major malignancy that has been observed in association with Analgesic Nephropathy is transitional cell carcinoma, other cancers such as renal cell carcinoma and sarcoma has also been reported in the literature. Analgesic-associated tumours are more likely to be multifocal and more malignant than those unrelated to analgesics. These tumours are more likely of renal pelvic origin with frequent accompaniment of renal papillary necrosis  and kidney dysfunction. A mean phenacetin consumption of 9.1 kg, a mean exposure time of 17 years, a mean induction time of 22 years, and female sex have been reported as risk factors for these tumours.


  • Track 12-1Pathological abnormalities in kidney
  • Track 12-2Impairment of moderate renal

A kidney biopsy involves taking one or more tiny pieces (samples) of your kidney to look at with special microscopes. The microscopes make it possible to see the samples in greater detail.

The biopsy sample may be taken in one of two ways:

1.Percutaneous (through the skin) biopsy: a needle placed through the skin that lies over the kidney and guided to the right place in the kidney, usually with the help of ultrasound.

2.Open biopsy: the kidney sample is taken directly from the kidney during surgery.
The kidney sample is then sent to a doctor (pathologist) who looks at it with microscopes. He or she will check for any signs of disease.


  • Track 13-1Azotemia or Uraemia
  • Track 13-2Urinary tract infection
  • Track 13-3Obesity
  • Track 13-4Warfarin or Heparin
  • Track 13-5Pregnancy

Congenital nephrotic syndrome is defined by the presence of nephrotic range proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia and edema, with onset in the first 3 months of life. It is usually secondary to genetic mutations of the components of the glomerular filtration barrier, although infective causes must be ruled out. Congenital heart disease is extremely rare in congenital nephrotic syndrome, accounting for less than 20% of cases and is mostly associated with podocin mutation. We report a 2 month girl, presenting with anasarca in the first 2 months of life and was diagnosed to have congenital nephrotic syndrome. Infectious causes including malaria, cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis, syphilis, human immunodeficiency virus and rubella were ruled out. In view of a systolic murmur, echocardiography was done which revealed ostium secundum atrial septal defect and branch pulmonary artery stenosis. Genetic analysis showed homozygous single base pair duplication in exon 20 of the NPHS1 gene (chr19:36332624dupG; Depth: 216x) resulting in a frameshift and premature truncation of the protein 6 amino acids downstream to codon 937 (p.Ser937GlnfsTer6; ENST00000378910.5). This is the first case of NPHS1 (nephrin) mutation associated with congenital cardiac disease along with congenital nephrotic syndrome.


  • Track 14-1Townes- Brocks Syndrome
  • Track 14-2Townes- Brocks Syndrome
  • Track 14-3Genetic analysis
  • Track 14-4Patient management
  • Track 14-5Collection of clinical data
  • Track 14-6Light and electron Microscopy of Kidney samples

Kidney transplantation or renal transplantation is the organ transplant of a kidney into a patient with end-stage renal disease. Kidney transplantation is typically classified as deceased-donor (formerly known as cadaveric) or living-donor transplantation depending on the source of the donor organ. Living-donor renal transplants are further characterized as genetically related (living-related) or non-related (living-unrelated) transplants, depending on whether a biological relationship exists between the donor and recipient. Exchanges and chains are a novel approach to expand the living donor pool. In February 2012, this novel approach to expand the living donor pool resulted in the largest chain in the world, involving 60 participants organized by the national kidney registry. In 2014 the record for the largest chain was broken again by a swap involving 70 participants.



  • Track 16-1Transplanted Kidney
  • Track 16-2Transplanted ureter
  • Track 16-3End stage kidney disease
  • Track 16-4Prognosis

Nephrocalcinosis  is a condition in which calcium levels in the kidneys are increased. Most often, the increase in renal calcium is generalized, as opposed to the localized increase observed in calcified renal infarct and caveating granulomas of renal tuberculosis.  Determined by the underlying aetiology, though in many cases, the condition remains asymptomatic and is identified only as a radiologic abnormality.

Clinical features of  hypercalcaemic nephropathy: Relative vasopressin resistance with decreased renal concentrating ability and increased free water diuresis, manifesting as polyuria and polydipsia, Renal glycosuria, reduced glucose tubular maximum, aminoaciduria, and no glomerular proteinuria, Reversible hypertension, Renal failure. Clinical features of microscopic nephrocalcinosis include reduced concentration capacity,  Increased blood urea nitrogen (BUN), Prolongation of nephron transit time in the distal tubule, Acute pyelonephritis or calculous ureteral obstruction with renal failure.


  • Track 17-1Kidney and blood pressure research
  • Track 17-2Medullary Nephrocalcinosis
  • Track 17-3 Hypercalciuria without Hypercalcemia
  • Track 17-4Stages of Nephrocalcinosis
  • Track 17-5Medullary sponge kidney

Renal cell carcinoma, also called kidney cancer, occurs when cancer cells form in the tubules of the kidney. Renal cell carcinoma becomes metastatic renal cell carcinoma when it spreads beyond your kidney to your lymph system, bones, or other organs. Tubules are tiny tubes in your kidney that help filter waste products from your blood in order to make urine. Smoking, hypertension, obesity, and hepatitis C all increase the risk of renal cell carcinoma. Renal cell carcinoma becomes metastatic renal cell carcinoma when it spreads beyond your kidney to your lymph system, bones, or other organs.



  • Track 18-1Tumor heterogeneity
  • Track 18-2Localized disease
  • Track 18-3Patterns of metastases RCC
  • Track 18-4Brain metastases
  • Track 18-5Vascular endothelial growth factor
  • Track 18-6Hypoxia inducible factor
  • Track 18-7 Mammalian target of rapamycin

Renal papillary necrosis is a disorder of the kidneys in which all or part of the renal papillae die. The renal papillae are the areas where the openings of the collecting ducts enter the kidney and where urine flows into the ureters.

\Renal papillary necrosis is a disorder of the kidneys in which all or part of the renal papillae die. The renal papillae are the areas where the openings of the collecting ducts enter the kidney and where urine flows into the ureters. Renal papillary necrosis often occurs with analgesic nephropathy. This is damage to one or both kidneys caused by over exposure to pain medicines.


  • Track 19-1Diabetic nephropathy
  • Track 19-2 Kidney infection(pyelonephritis)
  • Track 19-3kidney transplant rejection
  • Track 19-4Sickle cell anemia
  • Track 19-5Urinary tract blockage
  • Track 19-6Urinary tract blockage

Nephroblastoma (or) Wilms tumor is a rare kidney cancer that is highly treatable. Most kids with Wilms tumour survive and go on to live normal, healthy lives. Also known as nephroblastoma, Wilms tumour can affect both kidneys, but usually develops in just one. Before being diagnosed with Wilms tumour, most children do not show any signs of having cancer, and usually act and play normally. Often, a parent discovers a firm, smooth lump in the child's abdomen (belly). It is not uncommon for the mass to grow quite large before it is discovered. In fact, the average Wilms tumour is 1 pound at diagnosis.


  • Track 20-1Aniridia
  • Track 20-2 Hemihypertrophy
  • Track 20-3WAGR syndrome
  • Track 20-4WAGR syndrome
  • Track 20-5Denys-Drash syndrome
  • Track 20-6Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome

Fanconi syndrome is a rare disorder of kidney tubule function that results in excess amounts of glucose, bicarbonate, phosphates (phosphorus salts), uric acid, potassium and certain amino acids being excreted in the urine. 


  • Track 21-1Vitamin D deficiency
  • Track 21-2Kidney transplantation
  • Track 21-3Multiple myeloma
  • Track 21-4Amyloidosis

Glomerulonephritis (gloe-mer-u-low-nuh-FRY-tis) is inflammation of the tiny filters in your kidneys (glomeruli). Glomeruli remove excess fluid, electrolytes and waste from your bloodstream and pass them into your urine. Glomerulonephritis can come on suddenly (acute) or gradually (chronic).Glomerulonephritis occurs on its own or as part of another disease, such as lupus or diabetes. Severe or prolonged inflammation associated with glomerulonephritis can damage your kidneys.


  • Track 22-1Post-Streptococcal glomerulonephritis
  • Track 22-2Bacterial endocarditis
  • Track 22-3Granulomatosis with polyangitis

Robotic surgery is a type of minimally invasive surgery. “Minimally invasive” means that instead of operating on patients through large incisions, we use miniaturized surgical instruments that fit through a series of quarter-inch incisions. ... If you're facing surgery, you couldn't be in better hands.Urology Robotics is a new interdisciplinary field for the application of robots in urology and for the development of such systems and novel technologies in this clinical discipline.

 Paediatric nephrologists diagnose, treat, and manage many disorders affecting the kidney and urinary tract, including kidney failure, high blood pressure, inherited kidney diseases, kidney stones, urinary tract infections, and abnormalities in the urine such as blood and protein. If your child has kidney or urinary tract disease, bladder problems, kidney stones, or high blood pressure, a paediatric nephrologist has the special skills and experience to treat your child. Paediatric nephrologists treat children from infancy through late adolescence and in some centres up to young adulthood.


  • Track 24-1Hemodynamics
  • Track 24-2Polycystic
  • Track 24-3Primary Hyperoxaluria
  • Track 24-4Acute kidney failure
  • Track 24-5Herediatary Kidney disorder

It is also called renal cell cancer or renal cell adenocarcinoma, is a common type of kidney cancer. About 90% of all kidney cancers are renal cell carcinomas. RCC usually begins as a tumour growing in one of your kidneys. It can also develop in both kidneys.  Cancerous tumour is discovered in one of your kidneys, the usual treatment is to remove part or the entire affected kidney surgically. If the tumour is left, it’s more likely that the cancer will spread to either your lymph nodes or other organs. The spread of cancer is called metastasis. In the case of RCC, the tumour can invade a large vein leading out of the kidney. It can also spread to the lymph system and other organs (the lungs are especially vulnerable).


  • Track 25-1Endothrelial glycocalyx
  • Track 25-2Anti inflammatory therapy
  • Track 25-3Tumor Necrosis
  • Track 25-4Targeting fibrosis

While healthy kidney have several functions in the body, the most well-known job is to produce urine. When kidney function goes below 10% to 15% kidneys are no longer able to filter the blood and make urine. This causes toxins to build up in the body along with excess fluid. Fortunately, we live in a time when there are treatments and medicines that can replace the functions of the kidneys and keep the body alive. One type of renal replacement therapy is a treatment that replaces kidney function is known as haemodialysis. Haemodialysis is a therapy that filters waste, removes extra fluid and balances electrolytes (sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, chloride, calcium, magnesium and phosphate).


  • Track 26-1Conventional hemodialysis
  • Track 26-2Nocturnal hemodialysis
  • Track 26-3Epidemiology

Peritoneal dialysis is a type of dialysis which uses the peritoneum in a person's abdomen as the membrane through which fluid and dissolved substances are exchanged with the blood. It is used to remove excess fluid, correct electrolyte problems, and remove toxins in those with kidney failure. Peritoneal dialysis has better outcomes than haemodialysis  during the first couple of years. Other benefits include greater flexibility and better tolerability in those with significant heart disease.

Complications may include infections with the abdomen, hernias, high blood sugar, bleeding in the abdomen, and blockage of the catheter. Use is not possible in those with significant prior abdominal surgery or inflammatory bowel disease. It requires some degree of technical skill to be done properly. In peritoneal dialysis, a specific solution is introduced through a permanent tube in the lower abdomen and then removed. This may either occur at regular intervals throughout the day, known as continuous ambulatory dialysis, or at night with the assistance of a machine, known as automated peritoneal dialysis. The solution is typically made of sodium chloride, hydrogen carbonate, and an osmotic agent such as glucose.


  • Track 27-1Hemodialysis
  • Track 27-2Continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD)
  • Track 27-3Peritoneal equilibration test
  • Track 27-4Clerance test

Hydro nephrosis is a structural situation that commonly takes place while the kidney swells because of the failure of regular drainage of urine from the kidney to the bladder resulting in the distension and dilation of the renal pelvis and calyces. It can have an effect on human beings of any age and is once in a while spotted in unborn toddlers at some stage in ordinary pregnancy ultrasound scans.Whilst no motive may be detectable it's miles called as Idiopathic hydro nephrosis and while there is a definable reason it's miles Secondary hydro nephrosis. Unilateral maybe extramural, intramural or intraluminal and it is normally visible in youngsters. Hydro nephrosis may additionally or won't cause signs. The most important symptom is ache, either in the side and returned, stomach or groin. Symptoms depend on the motive and severity of urinary blockage hazard elements like kidney stones, urinary tract infections might also lead to hydro nephrosis. An ultrasound can be used to commonly diagnose the disease. Treatment for hydro nephrosis ordinarily makes a speciality of getting rid of whatever is blockading the glide of urine and the treatment choice depends on the underlying purpose of the disorder.


  • Track 28-1Hyponatremia
  • Track 28-2Urethral meatus
  • Track 28-3Retroperitoneal fibrosis
  • Track 28-4Prognosis

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means your kidneys are damaged and can't filter blood the way they should. The disease is called “chronic” because the damage to your kidneys happens slowly over a long period of time. This damage can cause wastes to build up in your body. CKD can also cause other health problems. The kidneys’ main job is to filter extra water and wastes out of your blood to make urine. To keep your body working properly, the kidneys balance the salts and minerals—such as calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and potassium—that circulate in the blood. Your kidneys also make hormones that help control blood pressure, make red blood cells, and keep your bones strong. Kidney disease often can get worse over time and may lead to kidney failure. If your kidneys fail, you will need dialysis or a kidney transplant to maintain your health. The sooner you know you have kidney disease, the sooner you can make changes to protect your kidneys.

  • Track 29-1Suprapubic catheter
  • Track 29-2Pyonephrosis
  • Track 29-3Stone causing hydronephrosis

IgA nephropathy (nuh-FROP-uh-thee), also known as Berger's disease, is a kidney disease that occurs when an antibody called immunoglobulin A (IgA) builds up in your kidneys. This results in local inflammation that, over time, can hamper your kidneys' ability to filter waste from your blood. Our kidneys are two bean-shaped, fist-sized organs situated at the small of your back, one on each side of your spine. Each kidney contains tiny blood vessels that filter waste, excess water and other substances from your blood as they pass through your kidneys. The filtered blood renters your bloodstream, while the waste material passes into your bladder and out of your body when you urinate. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is an antibody that plays a key role in your immune system by attacking invading pathogens and fighting infections. But in IgA nephropathy, this antibody collects in the glomeruli, causing inflammation (glomerulonephritis) and gradually affecting their filtering ability.


  • Track 30-1Liver diseases
  • Track 30-2Genes
  • Track 30-3Chronic kidney disease

It is a medical condition that involves an accumulation of acid in the body due to a failure of the kidneys to appropriately acidify the urine. In renal physiology, when blood is filtered by the kidney, the filtrate passes through the tubules of the nephron, allowing for exchange of salts, acid equivalents, and other solutes before it drains in to the bladder as urine. The metabolic acidosis that results from RTA may be caused either by failure to reabsorb sufficient bicarbonate ions from the filtrate in the early portion of the nephron or by insufficient secretion of hydrogen ions in to the latter portion of the nephron. Although a metabolic acidosis is also occurs in those with chronic kidney disease.


  • Track 31-1 Absolute hypoaldosteronism
  • Track 31-2 Absolute hypoaldosteronism
  • Track 31-3Aldosterone insensitivity
  • Track 31-4Acidemia

Surgery to remove a kidney or part of a kidney. In a partial nephrectomy, part of one kidney or a tumour is removed, but not an entire kidney. In a simple nephrectomy, one kidney is removed. In a radical nephrectomy, an entire kidney, nearby adrenal gland and lymph nodes, and other surrounding tissue are removed. In a bilateral nephrectomy, both kidneys are removed.

  • Track 32-1Radial Nephrectomy
  • Track 32-2Parital Nephrectomy
  • Track 32-3Robotic Nephrectomy
  • Track 32-4Delayed nephrectomy

It is a kidney located below, above, or on the opposite side of the kidney’s normal position in the urinary tract. The two kidneys are usually located near the middle of your back, just below your rib cage, on either side of your spine. An ectopic kidney usually doesn’t cause any symptoms or health problems, and many people never find out that they have the condition.. If an ectopic kidney is discovered, it is usually found during a foetal ultrasound—an imaging test that uses sound waves to create a picture of  how a baby is developing in the womb—or during medical tests done to check for a urinary tract infection or to find the cause of abdominal pain. Rarely does a person have two ectopic kidneys.

In the womb, foetus kidneys first develop as small buds in the lower abdomen inside the pelvis. During the first 8 weeks of growth, the foetus’s  kidneys slowly move from the pelvis to their normal position in the back near the rib cage. When an ectopic kidney occurs during growth, the kidney

  • stays in the pelvis near the bladder
  • stops moving up too early and stays in the lower abdomen
  • moves too high up in the abdomen
  • crosses over the centre of the body and often grows into, or joins, the other kidney, with both kidneys on the same side of the body


 It is a group of blood disorders characterized by low red blood cells, acute kidney failure, and low platelets. Initial symptoms typically include bloody diarrhoea, fever, vomiting, and weakness. Kidney problems and low platelets then occur as the diarrhoea is improving. While children are more commonly affected, adults may have worse outcomes. Complications may include neurological problems and heart failure.


  • Track 34-1Thrombocytopenia
  • Track 34-2Microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia

Interstitial nephritis is a kidney condition characterized by swelling in between the kidney tubules.The main functions of your kidneys are to filter your blood and to get rid of waste from your body. The kidney tubules reabsorb water and important organic substances from the filtered blood and secrete substances you don’t need into your urine for removal from your body. Swelling of these tubules can cause a number of kidney symptoms that range from mild to severe.


  • Track 35-1Analgesic nephropathy
  • Track 35-2Chronic
  • Track 35-3Tubulointerstital nephritis
  • Track 35-4Acute tubulointerstital nephritis
  • Track 35-5Kidney Biopsy

 Atheroembolic renal disease is caused by occlusion of small arteries in the kidneys by cholesterol crystal emboli from ulcerated atherosclerotic plaques and is a part of systemic atheroembolism disease. Atheroembolic renal disease (AERD), also called atheroembolism , cholesterol embolism , cholesterol atheroembolic renal disease , or cholesterol crystal embolization , often is an underdiagnosed clinical illness. The kidney is usually involved because of proximity of the renal arteries to abdominal aorta, wherein the erosion of atheromatous plaque is most likely to occur. Cholesterol embolism also can occur in other visceral organs, as well as in the upper and lower extremities. Because the renal arteries have their origin from abdominal aorta and an enormous amount of blood flows through the kidney, it becomes a prime target in cholesterol crystal embolization.

AERD can be defined as renal failure secondary to the occlusion of renal arteries, arterioles, and glomerular capillaries with atheromatous plaques that are dislodged from the aorta and other major arteries. The release of cholesterol plaques into the circulation can occur spontaneously or after intravascular trauma with angiographic catheters or after the use of anticoagulants and thrombolytic agents. Like the native kidneys, a transplanted kidney also can be affected with cholesterol embolism and it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of worsening renal allograft function. Furthermore, AERD should be distinguished from other embolic disorders, such as atrial fibrillation, left atrial myxoma, and bacterial endocarditis.


  • Track 36-1Arterial occlusion of renal artery
  • Track 36-2Arterial occlusion of renal artery

Horseshoe kidney, also called renal fusion, is a condition that starts before a child is born. As a baby develops in the womb, kidneys move into position just above the waist one on each side of the body. But sometimes that doesn't happen as it should .Instead, the kidneys fuse together at their base, forming a U or horseshoe shape. It usually happens between weeks 7 and 9 of the pregnancy. The condition isn’t common about 1 in 500 babies have it, boys more often than girls. And many kids won’t have serious health issues because of it.


  • Track 37-1Kidney Stones
  • Track 37-2Urinary tract infections

Chronic kidney disease promotes hypertension and dyslipidaemia, which in turn can contribute to the progression of renal failure.  Accelerated atherosclerosis will then lead to increased prevalence of coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease.


  • Track 40-1Complications of CKD and heart disease
  • Track 40-2Anaemia
  • Track 40-3High blood pressure
  • Track 40-4Unbalanced Calcium-Phosphorous levels
  • Track 40-5Diabetics and High blood pressure

Onconephrology is a rising subspecialty of nephrology. The American Society of Nephrology (ASN) made a discourse focused on the field of Onconephrology in 2011 to improve collective consideration after aggravation of the kidney and upper urinary tract. The third kind of nephritis is genetic nephritis, an uncommon acquired condition harm patients with kidney disease. Randomized controlled preliminaries in a subspecialty like Onconephrology must be conceivable when there is a joint effort among nephrologists and malignant growth doctors from malignancy bases on the world that collaborate and share inquire about thoughts at worldwide gatherings. This has driven nephrologists to experience new and in part unrecognized medicines of the focused on treatment operators with kidney unfavourable impacts. These operators fall for the most part in to2 classifications influencing the vascular endothelial development factor and endothelial developments factor pathways. An energizing period in the analysis and treatment of disease has developed over the most recent 2 decades. What was at one times a regularly savage illness has, for some, patients, become an incessant malady with longer endurance than any time in recent memory.. Be that as it may, with the prolongation of life there are moreover related inconveniences, for instance, interminable kidney illness (CKD). This malady has impacts on the patients' medicines, measurements of prescriptions, personal satisfaction, and by and large endurance. Nephritis is an aggravation of the kidney the most significant pervasive to intense nephritis is glomerulonephritis. Pyelonephritis that affects in grown-ups more than kids and it is perceived as.

Congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) is a group of abnormalities affecting the kidneys or other structures of the urinary tract.  Individuals with CAKUT have one or more kidney or urinary tract abnormalities. For paired structures, like the kidneys and ureters, one or both may be affected. Many different developmental abnormalities are classified as CAKUT, including underdevelopment or absence of a kidney ,a kidney formed of fluid-filled sacs called cysts (multicystic dysplastic kidney), buildup of urine in the kidneys (hydronephrosis), an extra ureter leading to the kidney (duplex kidney or duplicated collecting system), a blockage in a ureter where it joins the kidney (ureteropelvic junction obstruction), an abnormally wide ureter (megaureter), backflow of urine from the bladder into the ureter (vesicoureteral reflux), and an abnormal membrane in the urethra that blocks the flow of urine out of the bladder (posterior urethral valve).


  • Track 42-1 Renal Coloboma Syndrome
  • Track 42-217q12 deletion syndrome
  • Track 42-3Renal Cysts and diabetes Syndrome(RCAD)
  • Track 42-4Fraser syndrome

It refers to various conditions relating to the formation of cystic in the kidney. Polycystic kidney disease is a genetic anomaly; PKD has two subsets, autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is an inherited disorder in which clusters of cysts develop primarily within your kidneys, causing your kidneys to enlarge and lose function over time. Cysts are noncancerous round sacs containing fluid. The cysts vary in size, and they can grow very large. Having many cysts or large cysts can damage your kidneys. Polycystic kidney disease also can cause cysts to develop in your liver and elsewhere in your body. The disease can cause serious complications, including high blood pressure and kidney failure.


  • Track 43-1Polycystic kidney disease (PKD)
  • Track 43-2Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD)

End-stage renal disease also termed as Chronic kidney diseases (CKD) comprise condition that damage kidneys and impair their ability to keep you hygienic by abnormal function. On condition kidney disease gets worse; waste can accumulate to high levels in your blood make you feel ill. You may develop issues like anaemia, high blood pressure, weak bones, nerve damage and poor nutritional health. Also, kidney disease elevates your risk of having coronary disease and heart problems. These problems may occur slowly for a long period time. Diabetes and high blood pressure are the two main causes of chronic kidney disease.


  • Track 44-1Acute kidney failure
  • Track 44-2Kidney transplantation
  • Track 44-3Peritonal dialysis

Coronaviruses are types of viruses that typically affect the respiratory tracts of birds and mammals, including humans. Doctors associate them with the common cold, bronchitis, pneumonia, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and they can also affect the gut. These viruses are typically responsible for common colds more than serious diseases. However, coronaviruses are also behind some more severe outbreaks. Over the last 70 years, scientists have found that coronaviruses can infect mice, rats, dogs, cats, turkeys, horses, pigs, and cattle. Sometimes, these animals can transmit coronaviruses to humans. Scientists cannot easily cultivate human coronaviruses in the laboratory unlike the rhinovirus, which is another cause of the common cold. This makes it difficult to gauge the impact of the coronavirus on national economies and public health. There is no cure, so treatments include self-care and over-the-counter (OTC) medication. People can take several steps, including: Resting and avoiding overexertion, Drinking enough water,Avoiding smoking and smoky areas,Taking acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or naproxen for pain and fever, Using a clean humidifier or cool mist vaporizer.

A doctor can diagnose the virus responsible by taking a sample of respiratory fluids, such as mucus from the nose, or blood. Different types of human coronaviruses vary in how severe the resulting disease becomes, and how far they can spread.


  • Track 45-1229E (alpha coronavirus)
  • Track 45-2NL63 (alpha coronavirus)
  • Track 45-3OC43 (beta coronavirus)
  • Track 45-4HKU1 (beta coronavirus)