Kidney cancer (also called renal adenocarcinoma or renal cell cancer) is a disease in which cancer cells are found in the lining of tubules in the kidney. We have two kidneys, behind the peritoneum one on each side of the spinal cord, just above the waist. Small tubules in the kidneys purify the blood. Unabsorbed products formed as urine. The formed urine passes in to bladder through long tube called bladder. The urine stored in bladder until leaves from body through urethra. Kidney cancer perhaps remains clinically occult for most of its course. Immunomodulatory agents and targeted therapy are the standard of care in metastatic disease patients. Kidney cancer: The most common malignant disease affecting kidney is kidney cancer. One of the most common causes for kidney cancer is smoking.