End Stages Renal diseases

In general, patients with Anaemia of chronic illness or chronic kidney disease can be treated on a casualty basis. Confounding factors that need to be addressed in both diseases include concomitant blood loss, iron deficiency, or deficiencies of vitamin B12 and/or folic acid. When kidneys start to fail, little or no Erythropoietin (EPO) is produced and this results in a failure of red cell production. Another factor causing anaemia in kidney disease can be iron deficiency as iron is not absorbed so the kidneys start to fail this leads to renal anaemia. Several million patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have benefited from the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) to correct severe anaemia. Sometimes Haematopoiesis the formation of blood cellular components. All cellular blood components are derived from haematopoietic stem cells and Kidney biopsy is a medical procedure in which a small piece of kidney is removed from the body for examination, usually under a microscope. Microscopic examination of the tissue can provide information needed to diagnose, monitor or treat problems of the kidney. However, mortality data now suggest that treating CKD patients to achieve a haemoglobin (Hb) level >13 g/dl can be harmful.