Congenital Renal Anomalies
Congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) is a group of abnormalities affecting the kidneys or other structures of the urinary tract. Individuals with CAKUT have one or more kidney or urinary tract abnormalities. For paired structures, like the kidneys and ureters, one or both may be affected. Many different developmental abnormalities are classified as CAKUT, including underdevelopment or absence of a kidney ,a kidney formed of fluid-filled sacs called cysts (multicystic dysplastic kidney), buildup of urine in the kidneys (hydronephrosis), an extra ureter leading to the kidney (duplex kidney or duplicated collecting system), a blockage in a ureter where it joins the kidney (ureteropelvic junction obstruction), an abnormally wide ureter (megaureter), backflow of urine from the bladder into the ureter (vesicoureteral reflux), and an abnormal membrane in the urethra that blocks the flow of urine out of the bladder (posterior urethral valve).